University of Hamburg - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker Centre for Science and Peace Research

ZNF (Germany)

The Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker Centre for Science and Peace Research is an interdisciplinary institution at the University of Hamburg, Germany and was founded in 2006. One of the main research areas of ZNF is verification and monitoring of international treaties.  The Research Group on Nuclear Weapons and Arms control focuses, among others, on the development of methods for the global monitoring of special atmospheric noble gases (krypton-85 and radio-xenon) for nuclear safeguards and the CTBT verification regime. The Research Group for Biological Weapons Control develops new concepts and instruments for monitoring bioweapon relevant activities and for verifying and enforcing compliance with the norm against bioweapons.Besides its research agenda, ZNF integrates aspects of peace research into the work of the Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Natural Sciences as well as contributing scientific expertise to existing peace-related research and teaching of all departments of the University of Hamburg.

Contact information

University of Hamburg - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker Centre for Science and Peace Research - ZNF

Beim Schlump 83
20144 Hamburg

Tel: +49 40 42838 - 4335
Fax: +49 40 42838 - 3052

The team

Gunnar Jeremias - Head of Research Group
for Biological Arms Control
Tel: +49 40 42838-4383


Gunnar Jeremias is a political scientist. His core area of research is the exploration of the roles of civil society actors in arms control regimes (especially: compliance monitoring). 
The development of a monitoring system for global trade in bioweapons relevant items is a more policy oriented project. He is also concerned with all other actual projects of the Research Group, such as analysis of the Confidence Building Measures of the BWC.


  • Monitoring and verification of arms control treaties.
  • Biological Weapons Convention
  • Non-Governmental Organisations in Treaty Verification Confidence Building Measures
  • Open source data in compliance monitoring

Martin B. Kalinowski - Director
Tel: +49 40 42838-2870


Martin B. Kalinowski is Professor for Science and Peace Research and founding director of the ZNF. He holds a PhD in nuclear physics (1997) dealing with international tritium control. Between 1998 and 2005 he worked for the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization in Vienna, Austria. His research agenda deals with novel measurement technologies as well as nuclear and meteorological modelling of atmospheric radioactivity as a means to detect clandestine nuclear activities such as plutonium separation and nuclear testing.


  • Treaty Verification
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation and disarmament
  • Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
  • Climate change and Security

Dr. Markus Kohler - Research Fellow
Tel: +49 40 42838-7036


Markus Kohler holds currently a postdoc position at the Weizsäcker Centre for
Science and Peace Research, University of Hamburg, and deals with the measurement apparatus (atom trap trace analysis) of krypton-85 samples for the verification of plutonium production activities. He received his doctoral degree in physics at the University of Hamburg in 2011.


  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation and disarmament
  • Noble gas separation and measurement

Hartwig Spitzer - Professor, Associate member
Tel: +49 40 8998-2313


Hartwig Spitzer received his Ph.D. in physics from University of Hamburg, Germany, in 1967. Since 1972 he is professor of physics at the University of Hamburg. He has participated in major particle physics experiments at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, specializing on instrumentation and multidimensional computer aided data analysis. In 1988 he cofounded the Center for Science and International Security (CENSIS) at the University of Hamburg, a predecessor of the ZNF. He has directed a group on analysis of multispectral aerial and satellite images. His current research interest focusses on the Treaty on Open Skies and conventional arms control.


  • Treaty Verification
  • Open Skies Treaty
  • Multispectral imaging