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Chronology

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A parallel overview of both the major milestones in the diplomatic process working towards the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East and other related non-proliferation instruments.
DateEvent
2012, July 23 EU Council Decision 2012/422/CFSP, “in support of a process leading to the establishment of a zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East”, Official Journal L 196, 24/07/2012 P. 0067 – 0073.
2012, April 30 – May 11 Preparatory Committee meeting in Vienna for the 2015 NPT Review Conference. Interim report presented by the Facilitator on the progress of the 2012 Conference and the WMD-Free Zone Establishment process in the region.
2011, October 14 Finland set to host the 2012 Middle East Conference. Finnish Undersecretary of State, Ambassador Jaakko Laajava, designated as the Facilitator.
2011, September 2 Fifty-fifth AIEA General Conference, latest Report on “Application of IAEA Safeguards in the Middle East” issued.
2011, July 6-7 EU Seminar in Support of a Process of Confidence-building leading to the Establishment of a WMDFZ and their Means of Delivery in the Middle East, held in Brussels, in accordance with Council Decision 2010/799/CFSP adopted on 13 December 2010.
2011, April 20 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1977, extending to ten additional years the mandate of 1540 Committee.
2010, December 13 EU Council Decision 2010/799/CFSP, “in support of a process of confidence building leading to the establishment of a zone free of WMD and their means of delivery in the Middle East” and “in support of the implementation of the EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Official Journal of the European Union, L341/27, December 23rd, 2010.
2010, July 22 Confirmation of European “readiness to contribute to the process by organizing a seminar” by EU Foreign Police Chief, Catherine Ashton, in a reply to the IAEA Director General’s letter of 7 April 2010.
2010, May NPT Review Conference.2010, May: NPT Review Conference. Adoption of five practical steps to progress towards the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East in the Final Document, including the organization of a Conference in 2012.
2009, July 19 Entry into force of African Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba)
2009, June 4 President Barack Obama called for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World at Cairo University, during Middle East tour.
2009, April 29 Joint Communiqué of the 19th GCC-EU Joint Council and Ministerial Meeting, Section 4.5 calling for the realization of a zone free of WMD in the region.
2008, September 12 IAEA Board Report on Libya’s past nuclear activities found that “Libya had addressed all of the outstanding issues related to its past nuclear activity”.
2008, July 13 The “Barcelona Process, a Union for the Mediterranean” (UfM) launched at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean. Affirmation that the UfM includes a section on Prevention of WMD Proliferation in Paragraph 5 of the Joint Declaration, adopted by the 43 participating States.
2008, June 19-20 EU International Seminar on « Middle East Security, WMD Non-Proliferation and Disarmament », held in Paris.
2008, April 25 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1810, regarding the 1540 Committee
2007, July 7 Entry into force of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
2007, April-May French Presidential Election. During Nicolas Sarkozy’s campaign, establishment of a Mediterranean Union proposed. Scaled down, it became the “Union for the Mediterranean” aimed at promoting "peace, stability and prosperity" in the region, launched in 2008.
2006, June 1 Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission Final Report, “Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms”, Sweden. Importance of intensifying international efforts to establish a WMDFZ in the Middle East stressed in the Report.
2006, April 27 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1673, regarding the 1540 Committee.
2005, October 15 Adoption of New Iraqi Constitution by referendum, confirming Iraqi international obligations regarding “non-proliferation, non-development, non-production, and non-use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons”.
2005, September 14 Adoption of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism by the UN General Assembly.
2005, July 8 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material opened for signature, not yet entered into force.
2004, April 28 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1540, taking measures “to prevent non-state actors from acquiring nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, delivery vehicles associated with these weapons, and other related material”.
2003, May 31 Launch of the Proliferation Security Initiative, by the United States. Adoption of a “Statement of Interdiction Principles”.
2003, April 28-May 9 Second session of the NPT Preparatory Committee, reaffirming the importance of the 1995 Resolution, of Israel joining the NPT, and of states support for the establishment of a Middle East WMDFZ.
2002, November 25-26 Adoption of The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), formally known as the International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation.
2002, April 8-19 First session of the NPT Preparatory Committee.
2001, June 18 Entry into force of Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.
2000, May 19 NPT Review Conference, reaffirming the importance of Middle East Resolution adopted during the 1995 NPT Review Conference, which is “valid until its goals and objectives are achieved”.
1999, December 17 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1284, establishing the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) after the collapse of UNSCOM, and supporting the establishment of a Middle East WMDFZ.
1997, December 17 Following UN Security Council Resolution 1284, UNSCOM replaced by United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).
1997, April 29 Entry into force of Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, formally known as Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
1996, October 24 Entry into force of Convention on Nuclear Safety.
1996, September 10 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) opened for signature, not yet entered into force.
1995, November 27-28 Barcelona Declaration, adopted at the Euro-Mediterranean Conference.
1995, April 17 - May 12 NPT Review and Extension Conference. Adoption of a Resolution on the Middle East.
1994, October 26 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. Article 4 on “Security” called upon parties to establish a WMDFZ, in the ACRS Multilateral Working Group context.
1992, September 13 Adoption of Resolution 5232 on coordination of the Arab position and efforts towards the WMDFZ project, during the ninety-eighth Session of the Council of the League of Arab States.
1992, May - 1994, December Multilateral Working Group on Arms Control and Regional Security (ACRS), put in place by the Madrid Process, convened on 6 occasions during this period.
1991, December 6 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4630, following Security Council Resolution 687, and ratifying the proposed extension for the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East.
1991, October 30 The Madrid Peace Conference, launched by the US and Russia.
1991, September 20 Adoption by the IAEA General Conference of Resolution 571 on the “Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East”. From that date onwards, the resolution has been passed annually without objections.
1991, May 29 President George Bush’s Middle East Arms Control Initiative, calling countries of the region to “implement a verifiable ban on the production and acquisition of weapons usable nuclear material”, and to support a NWFZ. “Fact Sheet: Middle East Arms Control Initiative”, The DISAM Journal, Summer 1991.
1991, April 3 - 1999, December 17 UNSCOM. Resolution 687 of 3 April 1991 calling for the elimination, under international supervision, of Iraqi WMD and ballistic missiles led to the establishment of UNSCOM.
1991, April 3 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 687, recognizing the necessity of establishing a WMDFZ in the Middle East.
1991, March 6 Damascus Declaration on Coordination and Cooperation among Arab Countries, calling upon the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council to support the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East.
1991 Publication of UN Secretary General Study on “Effective and Verifiable Measures which Would Facilitate the Establishment of a Nuclear Weapons Free Zone in the Middle East”.
1990, December 4 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4552, welcoming “the completion of the study undertaken by the Secretary General in accordance with paragraph 8 of Resolution 43/65”.
1990, May 28 to 30 Arab League Summit in Baghdad. Project of a WMDFZ in the Middle East discussed.
1990, April Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak first put forth the idea of a WMDFZ, extending the NWFZ project, at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva: “All WMD in the Middle East should be prohibited. All states of the region should make equal and reciprocal commitments in this regard”.
1989, August 29 IAEA Report “Technical Study on Different Modalities of Application of Safeguards in the Middle East.” Debate regarding the geographical delimitation of the Middle East.
1989, December 15 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 44108, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1988, December 7 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4365, requesting a ”Study on effective and verifiable measures which would facilitate the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East”.
1988, May 9 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 612, condemning the use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq conflict.
1987, November 30 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4228, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1987, February 26 Entry into force of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
1987, February 8 Entry into force of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM).
1986, October 27 Entry into force of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.
1986, December 3 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4148, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1985, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4082, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1985, September 25 NPT Review Conference. Endorsement of the NWFZ in the Middle East Project in the Final Declaration.
1984, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3954, highlighting the role of the UN in the establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East.
1983, December 15 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3864, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1982, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3775, “emphasizing further the need for appropriate measures on the question of the prohibition of military attacks on nuclear facilities”.
1981, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3687, stating that “Israeli attacks on Iraqi nuclear installations affect the prospects of the establishment of a WMDFZ”.
1980, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 35147. Israel joined the international consensus, allowing UNGA Resolutions on the “Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East” to be passed annually without a vote from this date onwards.
1979, December 11 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3477, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1978, December 14 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3364, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1977, December 12 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3282, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1976, December 10 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3171, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1975, December 11 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3474, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1975, December 11 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3472, defining the concept of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.
1975, March 26 Entry into force of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
1974, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3263 and first endorsement of the proposed establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East. Resolution adopted with 128 votes in favor, no votes against, and 2 abstentions (Israel, Myanmar).
1974, September Proposal of a Resolution by Iran and Egypt to the UN General Assembly, in a joint initiative, calling for the establishment of NWFZ in the Middle East.
1970, March 5 Entry into force of Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
1964, July 17-21 Organization of African Unity (OAU) First Summit held in Egypt. Denuclearization of Africa was highlighted.
1962, April NWFZ in the Middle East Genesis. Concept first put forward by the Committee for the Denuclearization of the Middle East, stating that nuclear weapons proliferation “constitutes a danger to Israel and to peace in the Middle East” and urging for UN intervention.
Middle East WMD-Free Zone Project Middle East Regional Context
DateEventDateEvent
2012, July 23 EU Council Decision 2012/422/CFSP, “in support of a process leading to the establishment of a zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East”, Official Journal L 196, 24/07/2012 P. 0067 – 0073.
2012, April 30 – May 11 Preparatory Committee meeting in Vienna for the 2015 NPT Review Conference. Interim report presented by the Facilitator on the progress of the 2012 Conference and the WMD-Free Zone Establishment process in the region.
2011, October 14 Finland set to host the 2012 Middle East Conference. Finnish Undersecretary of State, Ambassador Jaakko Laajava, designated as the Facilitator. 2011, December 18 Final withdrawal of US troops from Iraq.
2011, September 2 Fifty-fifth AIEA General Conference, latest Report on “Application of IAEA Safeguards in the Middle East” issued.
2011, July 6-7 EU Seminar in Support of a Process of Confidence-building leading to the Establishment of a WMDFZ and their Means of Delivery in the Middle East, held in Brussels, in accordance with Council Decision 2010/799/CFSP adopted on 13 December 2010. 2011, June 9 The IAEA Board of Governors found Syria to be in noncompliance with its NPT Safeguards Agreement, due to the “undeclared construction of a nuclear reactor at Dair Alzour and failure to provide design information for the facility".
2011, April 20 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1977, extending to ten additional years the mandate of 1540 Committee. 2011, March 19
– October 31
Libya Military Intervention, following UN Security Council Resolution 1973.
2010, December 13 EU Council Decision 2010/799/CFSP, “in support of a process of confidence building leading to the establishment of a zone free of WMD and their means of delivery in the Middle East” and “in support of the implementation of the EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Official Journal of the European Union, L341/27, December 23rd, 2010. 2010, December - 2011 Arab Spring. Wave of revolts began in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya.
2010, July 22 Confirmation of European “readiness to contribute to the process by organizing a seminar” by EU Foreign Police Chief, Catherine Ashton, in a reply to the IAEA Director General’s letter of 7 April 2010.
2010, May NPT Review Conference.2010, May: NPT Review Conference. Adoption of five practical steps to progress towards the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East in the Final Document, including the organization of a Conference in 2012.
2009, July 19 Entry into force of African Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) 2009, June 4 President Barack Obama called for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World at Cairo University, during Middle East tour.
2009, April 29 Joint Communiqué of the 19th GCC-EU Joint Council and Ministerial Meeting, Section 4.5 calling for the realization of a zone free of WMD in the region.
2008 and 2009 Union for Mediterranean Summits of 2008 and 2009 canceled, due to regional security context.
2008, July 13 The “Barcelona Process, a Union for the Mediterranean” (UfM) launched at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean. Affirmation that the UfM includes a section on Prevention of WMD Proliferation in Paragraph 5 of the Joint Declaration, adopted by the 43 participating States. 2008, December 27- 2009, January 18 Fighting in Gaza.
2008, June 19-20 EU International Seminar on « Middle East Security, WMD Non-Proliferation and Disarmament », held in Paris. 2008, September 12 IAEA Board Report on Libya’s past nuclear activities found that “Libya had addressed all of the outstanding issues related to its past nuclear activity”.
2008, April 25 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1810, regarding the 1540 Committee
2007, July 7 Entry into force of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 2007, September 6 Dair Alzour site, in Syria, destroyed by Israeli air strike.
2007, April-May French Presidential Election. During Nicolas Sarkozy’s campaign, establishment of a Mediterranean Union proposed. Scaled down, it became the “Union for the Mediterranean” aimed at promoting "peace, stability and prosperity" in the region, launched in 2008.
2006, June 1 Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission Final Report, “Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms”, Sweden. Importance of intensifying international efforts to establish a WMDFZ in the Middle East stressed in the Report. 2006, July 12 - September 8 Israel-Hezbollah Conflict in Lebanon.
2006, April 27 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1673, regarding the 1540 Committee.
2006, February 4 IAEA Board of Governors requests the Director General to refer the IAEA Iranian nuclear dossier to the UN Security Council. Beginning of the Iranian Nuclear Crisis.
2005, September 14 Adoption of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism by the UN General Assembly. 2005, October 15 Adoption of New Iraqi Constitution by referendum,confirming Iraqi international obligations regarding “non-proliferation, non-development, non-production, and non-use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons”.
2005, July 8 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material opened for signature, not yet entered into force.
2004, April 28 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1540, taking measures “to prevent non-state actors from acquiring nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, delivery vehicles associated with these weapons, and other related material”.
2003, May 31 Launch of the Proliferation Security Initiative, by the United States. Adoption of a “Statement of Interdiction Principles”.
2003, April 28-May 9 Second session of the NPT Preparatory Committee, reaffirming the importance of the 1995 Resolution, of Israel joining the NPT, and of states support for the establishment of a Middle East WMDFZ. 2003, March 20 - 2011, December 18 Iraq War.
2002, November 25-26 Adoption of The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), formally known as the International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation.
2002, April 8-19 First session of the NPT Preparatory Committee.
2001, June 18 Entry into force of Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.
2000, May 19 NPT Review Conference, reaffirming the importance of Middle East Resolution adopted during the 1995 NPT Review Conference, which is “valid until its goals and objectives are achieved”.
1999, December 17 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 1284, establishing the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) after the collapse of UNSCOM, and supporting the establishment of a Middle East WMDFZ. 1999, December 17 Following UN Security Council Resolution 1284, UNSCOM replaced by United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).
1997, April 29 Entry into force of Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, formally known as Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
1996, October 24 Entry into force of Convention on Nuclear Safety.
1996, September 10 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) opened for signature, not yet entered into force.
1995, November 27-28 Barcelona Declaration, adopted at the Euro-Mediterranean Conference. 1995, September 28 Interim Accords (Oslo Accords II)
1995, April 17 - May 12 NPT Review and Extension Conference. Adoption of a Resolution on the Middle East.
1994, October 26 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. Article 4 on “Security” called upon parties to establish a WMDFZ, in the ACRS Multilateral Working Group context.
1993, September 13 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (Oslo Accords).
1992, September 13 Adoption of Resolution 5232 on coordination of the Arab position and efforts towards the WMDFZ project, during the ninety-eighth Session of the Council of the League of Arab States.
1992, May - 1994, December Multilateral Working Group on Arms Control and Regional Security (ACRS), put in place by the Madrid Process, convened on 6 occasions during this period.
1991, December 6 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4630, following Security Council Resolution 687, and ratifying the proposed extension for the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East.
1991, October 30 The Madrid Peace Conference, launched by the US and Russia.
1991, September 20 Adoption by the IAEA General Conference of Resolution 571 on the “Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East”. From that date onwards, the resolution has been passed annually without objections.
1991, May 29 President George Bush’s Middle East Arms Control Initiative, calling countries of the region to “implement a verifiable ban on the production and acquisition of weapons usable nuclear material”, and to support a NWFZ. “Fact Sheet: Middle East Arms Control Initiative”, The DISAM Journal, Summer 1991.
1991, April 3 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 687, recognizing the necessity of establishing a WMDFZ in the Middle East. 1991, April 3 - 1999, December 17 UNSCOM. Resolution 687 of 3 April 1991 calling for the elimination, under international supervision, of Iraqi WMD and ballistic missiles led to the establishment of UNSCOM.
1991, March 6 Damascus Declaration on Coordination and Cooperation among Arab Countries, calling upon the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council to support the establishment of a WMDFZ in the Middle East.
1991 Publication of UN Secretary General Study on “Effective and Verifiable Measures which Would Facilitate the Establishment of a Nuclear Weapons Free Zone in the Middle East”.
1990, December 4 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4552, welcoming “the completion of the study undertaken by the Secretary General in accordance with paragraph 8 of Resolution 43/65”.
1990, May 28 to 30 Arab League Summit in Baghdad. Project of a WMDFZ in the Middle East discussed. 1990, August 2 – 1991, February 28 Gulf War. End of the war led to the discovery of Iraqi WMD Program and to UN decision to endorse both at General Assembly and Security Council level, the need to create a WMDFZ.
1990, April Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak first put forth the idea of a WMDFZ, extending the NWFZ project, at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva: “All WMD in the Middle East should be prohibited. All states of the region should make equal and reciprocal commitments in this regard”.
1989, August 29 IAEA Report “Technical Study on Different Modalities of Application of Safeguards in the Middle East.” Debate regarding the geographical delimitation of the Middle East.
1989, December 15 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 44108, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1988, December 7 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4365, requesting a ”Study on effective and verifiable measures which would facilitate the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East”.
1988, May 9 Adoption by UN Security Council of Resolution 612, condemning the use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq conflict. 1988, April 20 End of the Iran-Iraq War.
1987, November 30 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4228, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1987, February 26 Entry into force of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
1987, February 8 Entry into force of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM).
1986, October 27 Entry into force of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.
1986, December 3 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4148, following UNGA Resolution 3263
1985, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 4082, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1985, September 25 NPT Review Conference. Endorsement of the NWFZ in the Middle East Project in the Final Declaration.
1984, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3954, highlighting the role of the UN in the establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East.
1983, December 15 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3864, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1982, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3775, “emphasizing further the need for appropriate measures on the question of the prohibition of military attacks on nuclear facilities”.
1981, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3687, stating that “Israeli attacks on Iraqi nuclear installations affect the prospects of the establishment of a WMDFZ”. 1981, June 7 Operation Opera, Israeli air strike against Iraqi Osirak reactor. Revived the NWFZ process in the UN General Assembly.
1980, December 12 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 35147. Israel joined the international consensus, allowing UNGA Resolutions on the “Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East” to be passed annually without a vote from this date onwards. 1980, September 20 - 1988, August 20 Iran–Iraq War.Use of CW, for instance during the massive chemical Iraqi attack in 1988 against Halabja. Iraq’s declaration to UN inspectors described overall holdings of more than 200,000 unfilled and filled special munitions between 1982 and 1990, mostly stored at the Muthana State Establishment. Iran had also developed CW, according to Iranian Ambassador Mohammad R. Alborzi’ statement to the CWC State Parties Conference in The Hague, in November 1998. Iranian estimates of the number of Iranian casualties from Iraqi CW use is 60,000 (Javed Ali, "Chemical Weapons and the Iran-Iraq War: A Case Study in Noncompliance", The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2001).
1979, December 11 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3477, following UNGA Resolution 3263 1979, March 26 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty.
1979, April 1 Proclamation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
1978, December 14 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3364, following UNGA Resolution 3263 1978, September 17 Camp David Accords.
1977, December 12 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3282, following UNGA Resolution 3263. 1977, November 20 Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat's first Arab leader to officially visit Israel. Meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin.
1976, December 10 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3171, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1975, December 11 UN General Assembly approved Resolution 3474, following UNGA Resolution 3263.
1975, December 11 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3472, defining the concept of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. 1975, September 4 Sinai Interim Agreement.
1975, March 26 Entry into force of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
1974, December 9 Adoption by UN General Assembly of Resolution 3263 and first endorsement of the proposed establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East. Resolution adopted with 128 votes in favor, no votes against, and 2 abstentions (Israel, Myanmar).
1974, September Proposal of a Resolution by Iran and Egypt to the UN General Assembly, in a joint initiative, calling for the establishment of NWFZ in the Middle East.
1973, October 6 to 25 October War.
1970, March 5 Entry into force of Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
1967, July 5 to 10 Six-Day War.
1964, July 17-21 Organization of African Unity (OAU) First Summit held in Egypt. Denuclearization of Africa was highlighted.
1962, April NWFZ in the Middle East Genesis. Concept first put forward by the Committee for the Denuclearization of the Middle East, stating that nuclear weapons proliferation “constitutes a danger to Israel and to peace in the Middle East” and urging for UN intervention.