Focus – The Iranian nuclear crisis (October-November 2014)
Overview of the latest EU official documents, publications of the Consortium and publications from the network regarding the ongoing Iranian nuclear crisis
"We've been here in Vienna for the Iran Nuclear talks, following on from the Joint Plan of Action that we agreed in Geneva in November, to move towards a Comprehensive Joint Plan of Action that would restore confidence in the Iranian Nuclear Programme being entirely of a peaceful nature. We've made a lot of progress, we've discussed all of the key issues and drilled down into some of the substantial areas that need to be discussed.
We've decided that we are going to, within the framework of the Joint Plan of Action, extend the time that we spend on this. We have within that framework until 24 November 2014. It was a year long framework. The reason for that is that though there are still substantial differences on core issues, a lot of work has been done and we've agreed, with the ministers of the E3+3 and, of course, with Iran, that we would like to try and complete this process and to take this extra time in order to do that.
The next step is that people will return to capitals, they will consider the issues. We will bring the E3+3 together again in the next few weeks and I will meet with my Iranian counterpart, Minister Zarif, in order to continue our discussions. And then we will move to that stage and work out the timetable to do that. Our mission is to achieve this as quickly as possible, but we are determined to make sure that the agreement is a very good one."
Catherine Ashton, 19 July 2014
EU documents concerning the Iranian proliferation crisis
- Council Decision 2014/480/CFSP, 21 July 2014, amending Decision 2010/413/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against Iran, suspends the following restrictive measures: import ban on petrochemical products, ban on provision of certain services (related to petrochemical products), prohibition on transport of crude oil, ban on provision of certain services (related to Iranian crude oil), ban on trade in gold and precious metals, ban on 'supply' of certain vessels, temporary amendment of the restrictions on transfers of funds, temporary exception to freezing of funds and economic resources.
- Joint statement by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton and Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, Vienna, 19 July 2014
- E3/EU +3 nuclear negotiations with Iran: Terms of the agreement on a Joint Plan of Action, including measures to be undertaken by the European Union, Brussels, 17 January 2014
- Joint Plan of Action, Geneva, 24 November 2013
- Council Decision 2012/635/CFSP, 16 October 2012, extends the ban to the natural gas sector, introducing the same set of measures.
- Council Decision 2012/35/CFSP, 23 January 2012, modifies Council Decision 2010/413/CFSP to include a total ban on imports of Iranian oil. Furthermore, it forbids the provision of financial services in this sector, putting significant strain on Iran’s ability to export oil via maritime routes.
- Council Decision 2010/413/CFSP, 26 July 2010, abrogates Common Position 2007/140/CFSP to take account of the provisions of Security Council Resolution 1929 (09.06.10), as well as a series of corresponding measures. In addition to renewing the measures provided for by Common Position 2007/140/CFSP, the principal development involves the introduction of a ban on exports of goods, equipment, and technologies related to the oil and gas sectors (article 4).
- Common Position 2008/652/CFSP, 7August 2008, modifies Common Position 2007/140/CFSP to take account of the provisions of Security Council Resolution 1803 (03.03.08). It expands the list of Iranian officials and entities subject to restrictions. Member States are called to be vigilant with regard to certain types of financial transactions between institutions under their jurisdiction and a list of Iranian entities.
- Common Position 2007/246/CFSP, 23 April 2007, modifies the previous position to take account of the provisions of Security Council Resolution 1747 (24.03.07). The scope of export restrictions was expanded to include all kinds of military material.
- Common Position 2007/140/CFSP, 27 February 2007, adopted in support of the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 (23.12.06). It provides for an embargo on materials, goods, and equipment that could contribute to Iranian nuclear and ballistic activities. It also confirms for all member States the travel ban and asset freeze measures against a certain number of Iranian officials and entities.
Publications of the Consortium
- The Role of the EU in Iran Nuclear Negotiations, EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Conference 2014, First Plenary Session, 4 September, 2014, Bussels
- Iran's nuclear propensity: the probability of nuclear use Thanos Dokos, NP paper No.38, March 2014, 16p
- Assessing the European Union's sanctions policy: Iran as a case study, Dina Esfandiary, NP paper No.34, December 2013, 24p.
- Assessing the Efficacy of Sanctions Policy, EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Conference 2013, Special Session, 1 October, 2013, Bussels
- European Efforts to Solve the Conflict over Iran's Nuclear Programme: How Has the European Union Performed? , Oliver Meier, NP paper No.27, February 2013, 22p.
- A Middle East free of Missiles and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Iranian View, by Nasser Hadian, Second EU Consortium Middle East Seminar, November 2012, Brussels.
- The Iran Nuclear Dilemma: The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and NPT’s Main Objectives, by Seyed Hossein Mousavian, Second EU Consortium Middle East Seminar, November 2012, Brussels.
- Fourth Plenary Session-Iranian Nuclear Issue, First EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Conference, February 3-4, 2012, Brussels.
- The Iranian Nuclear Issue: Achieving a Win-Win Diplomatic Solution Pierre Goldschmidt, EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Conference, February 4, 2012
- The Iranian Problem: is a Diplomatic Solution Still Possible?, Mark Fitzpatrick, IISS, Presented at EU Non-Proliferation Consortium Kick-off Meeting, May 23, 2011, Brussels.
Publications from the network
- Les Émirats arabes unis : plaque tournante du trafic illicite vers l’Iran, Géraldine Franc, Note d'analyse, October 24, 2014, 20p. (in French), Group for research and information on peace and security
- A Perfect Solution to Nuclear Talks with Iran: A Deal Deemed Imperfect by All, Dina Esfandiary, The National Interest, October 22, 2014
- ELN Hosts Expert Briefing on Iranian Nuclear Negotiations, ELN, October 16, 2014,
- This Week: Prospects for Agreement with Iran Norman Moss, September 22, 2014
- Le dernier délai pour l’Iran ...et pour l’Ouest ?, Bart Smedts, e-Note 15, September 19, 2014, 4p. (in French), Royal Higher Institute for Defence
- Iran’s Nuclear Future Peter Jenkins, Richard Dalton, Research Paper, Middle East and North Africa Programme, Chatham House, September 2014, 20p.
- Russia’s solidarity with the West in the Iran nuclear talks Mark Fitzpatrick, Politics and Strategy - The Survival Editors' Blog, June 26, 2014
- Ways forward for Iran nuclear deal Mark Fitzpatrick, IISS Voices, February 07, 2014
- Six reasons why I’m optimistic about the Iranian nuclear deal, and two reasons why not Mark Fitzpatrick, IISS Voices, February 04, 2014
- Tehran Calling: Understanding a New Iranian Leadership Cornelius Adebahr, Carnegie Europe, January 2014, 46p.
- The surprising good Geneva deal Mark Fitzpatrick, The Survival's Editors Blog, 25 November 2013
- The right to dual-use technologies and the case of Iran Mark Fitzpatrick, The Non-Proliferation Monthly’s Editorial, August 2013
- Command and Control in a Nuclear-Armed Iran Shahram Chubin, Proliferation Papers No. 45, January - February 2013, 33p.
- The Permanent Crisis: Iran's Nuclear Trajectory Shashank Joshi, Whitehall Paper, 13 December 2012
- Iran's nuclear programme: civil and/or military goals? Bart Smedts, Defense & Security Analysis, Volume 28, Issue 3, 2012
- Norm competition in the EU's Iran policy Benjamin Kienzle, UNISCI Discussion Papers, Nº 30 (Octubre / October 2012), 15p.
- Why Kenneth Waltz is Both Right & Wrong About the ‘Iranian Bomb' Thanos Dokos, ELIAMEP Thesis, 2/2012, September 2012
- Un Iran nucléaire: comment éviter l'escalade?, ( in French ) M.Finaud, Revue Militaire Suisse N°3, May-June 2012
- Turkey and the Iranian Nuclear Programme B. Zanchetta and Hanna Ojanen, FIIA Briefing Paper, May 2012
- Iran's Nuclear Impasse - Breaking the Deadlock Paul Ingram, Gabrielle Rifkind, Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi, Report, Oxford Research Group, 20p., May 2012
- Avoiding the Unnecessary War - Myths and Reality of the West-Iran Nuclear Standoff Riccardo Alcaro, IAI Working Papers no. 12, March 2012
- A Nuclear Iran: Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (French version: “Un Iran nucléaire : comment éviter la prophétie auto-réalisatrice?” ) M. Finaud, GCSP Policy Paper No. 2012/1, January 2012
- A Nuclear Iran: Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (French version: Un Iran nucléaire : comment éviter la prophétie auto-réalisatrice?) M.Finaud, GCSP Policy Paper No. 2012/1, January 2012
- Learning From a Troubled Experience – Transatlantic Lessons from the Nuclear Standoff with Iran (Paid Access) Riccardo Alcaro , The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs vol. 46, no. 4, 2011
- Sanctions on Iran: Defining and Enabling 'Success' Dina Esfandiary and Mark Fitzpatrick, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 53, no. 5, October-November 2011, pp. 143-156
- Drawing the Line on Iranian Enrichment Michael A. Levi, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 53, no. 4, August/September 2011, pp. 169-198
- Stuxnet and the Future of Cyber War James P. Farwell and Rafal Rohozinski, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 53, no. 1, February–March 2011, pp. 23–40
- Iran's Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Capabilities - A net assessment the International Institute for Strategic Studies, IISS Strategic Dossiers, 3 February 2011
- After Sanctions, Deter and Engage Iran Andrew Parasiliti, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 52, no. 5, October–November 2010, pp. 13–20
- Rethinking Iran Robert E. Hunter, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 52, no. 5, October–November 2010, pp. 135–156
- Dealing with Iran: How can the EU achieve its strategic objectives? Shirin Pakfar, DIIS Report 2010/11, October 2010, 46 p.
- Raising the Stakes: The Need for a More Ambitious American Policy towards Iran B. Zanchetta , FIIA Working Paper 63, 2010, 22p.
- Iran: The Fragile Promise of the Fuel-Swap Plan Mark Fitzpatrick, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 52, no. 3, June–July 2010, pp. 67–94
- Ambition and Fear: Iran's Foreign Policy and Nuclear Programme Volker Perthes, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 52, no. 3, June–July 2010, pp. 95–114
- Iran’s Ballistic Missile Capabilities: A net assessment the International Institute for Strategic Studies, IISS Strategic Dossiers, 10 May 2010
- Iran: Diplomacy and Deterrence Andrew Parasiliti, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 51, no. 5, October–November 2009, pp. 5–13
- Iran: Breaking the Deadlock Jean-Louis Gergorin, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, vol. 51, no. 3, June–July 2009, pp. 19–25
- Thinking inside the box: Exploring legal approaches to build confidence in Iran’s nuclear programme Andreas Persbo, VERTIC Verification Matters, No. 7, May 2007, 34 p.
- The use of voluntary safeguards to build trust in states’ nuclear programmes: the case of Iran James Acton & Joanna Little, VERTIC Verification Matters, No. 8, May 2007, 87 p.